You will learn all you always wanted to know about the LHC , and never had the courage to ask! The only pre-requisite is a basic, college-level, knowledge of EM and of the principles that allow to steer charged beams. Topics covered will include, among others: - the description of the injector chain, from the generation of the protons, to the delivery of bunches to the LHC. Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH.
Turning the LHC ring into a new physics search machine. Simplified limits on resonances at the LHC. In the earliest stages of evaluating new collider data, especially if a small excess may be present, it would be useful to have a method for comparing the data with entire classes of models, to get an immediate sense of which classes could conceivably be relevant. In this paper, we propose a method that applies when the new physics invoked to explain the excess corresponds to the production and decay of a single, relatively narrow, s -channel resonance.
A simplifed model of the resonance allows us to convert an estimated signal cross section into general bounds on the product of the branching ratios corresponding to the dominant production and decay modes. This quickly reveals whether a given class of models could possibly produce a signal of the required size at the LHC.
Our work sets up a general framework, outlines how it operates for resonances with different numbers of production and decay modes, and analyzes cases of current experimental interest, including resonances decaying to dibosons, diphotons, dileptons, or dijets. Single top quark photoproduction at the LHC. High-energy photon-proton interactions at the LHC offer interesting possibilities for the study of the electroweak sector up to TeV scale and searches for processes beyond the Standard Model.
Maltoni and T. Stelzer and W. Long, Phys. Pukhov, Nucl. Meth A , ] programs interfaced to the Pythia [T. Event selection and suppression of main backgrounds have been studied. A comparable sensitivity to V to those obtained using the standard single top production in pp collisions has been achieved already for 10 fb of integrated luminosity.
Photoproduction at the LHC provides also an attractive framework for observation of the anomalous production of single top due to Flavour-Changing Neutral Currents. The sensitivity to anomalous coupling parameters, k and k is presented and indicates that stronger limits can be placed on anomalous couplings after 1 fb. Espinal, X. Dependability, resilience, adaptability and efficiency. Growing requirements require tailoring storage services and novel solutions.
Unprecedented volumes of data coming from the broad number of experiments at CERN need to be quickly available in a highly scalable way for large-scale processing and data distribution while in parallel they are routed to tape for long-term archival. These activities are critical for the success of HEP experiments. In parallel our systems provide the platform for the continuous user and experiment driven work-loads for large-scale data analysis, including end-user access and sharing.
In this paper we will summarise the experience in supporting LHC experiments and the transition of our infrastructure from static monolithic systems to flexible components providing a more coherent environment with pluggable protocols, tuneable QoS, sharing capabilities and fine grained ACLs management while continuing to guarantee dependable and robust services.
Pc as Physics Computer for Lhc? In the last five years, we have seen RISC workstations take over the computing scene that was once controlled by mainframes and supercomputers. In this paper we will argue that the same phenomenon might happen again. The problems encountered in porting both the CERN library and the specific Atlas codes are described together with some encouraging benchmark results when comparing to existing RISC workstations in use by the Atlas collaboration.
The issues of establishing the batch environment Batch monitor, staging software, etc. Finally a quick extrapolation of commodity computing power available in the future is touched upon to indicate what kind of cost envelope could be sufficient for the simulation farms required by the LHC experiments.
Longitudinal density monitor for the LHC. Jeff, A. The longitudinal density monitor LDM is primarily intended for the measurement of the particle population in nominally empty rf buckets. These so-called satellite or ghost bunches can cause problems for machine protection as well as influencing the luminosity calibration of the LHC. The high dynamic range of the system allows measurement of ghost bunches with as little as 0. The LDM is a single-photon counting system using visible synchrotron light.
The photon detector is a silicon avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode, which allows the longitudinal distribution of the LHC beams to be measured with a resolution of 90 ps. Results from the LDM are presented, including a proposed method for constructing a 3-dimensional beam density map by scanning the LDM sensor in the transverse plane.
In addition, we present a scheme to improve the sensitivity of the system by using an optical switching technique. The average number of concurrent proton-proton collisions per bunch-crossing pileup has reached up to 40 interactions in and may increase further in These high pileup levels necessitate a retuning of the ECAL readout and trigger thresholds and reconstruction algorithms. In addition, the energy response of the detector must be precisely calibrated and monitored.
We will show performance results from the data taking periods and provide an outlook on the expected Run II performance in the years to come. Particular challenges at HL- LHC are the harsh radiation environment, the increasing data rates, and the extreme level of pile-up events, with up to simultaneous proton-proton collisions. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin? A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond.
The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software.
The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it.
In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one.
The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein.
All rights reserved. Evaluation experimentale et theorique du comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites. Un total de vingt-trois prototypes de dimensions differentes; ont ete testes en flexion jusqu'a la rupture. Deux types de fibres de verre de masses lineaires differentes, ont ete utilisees afin d'evaluer l'effet du type de fibres sur le comportement a la flexion.
Un modele analytique base sur la theorie des poutres en elasticite lineaire est propose dans cette these. Ce modele predit avec une bonne precision le comportement experimental chargedeflexion ainsi que la deflexion maximale au sommet des poteaux en PRF; constitues de plusieurs zones de caracteristiques geometriques et mecaniques differentes.
Une procedure de dimensionnement des poteaux en PRF, basee sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus dans le cadre de la presente these, est egalement proposee. Les resultats obtenus dans le cadre de la presente these permettront le developpement et l'amelioration des regles de conception utiles et pratiques a l'usage des concepteurs et des industriels du domaine des poteaux en PRF. Les retombees de cette recherche sont a la fois economiques et technologiques, car les resultats obtenus constitueront une banque de donnees qui contribueront au developpement des normes de calcul, et par consequent a l'optimisation des materiaux utilises, et serviront a valider de futurs resultats et modeles theoriques.
Such studies would address open questions in the domain of the nucleon and nucleus partonic structure at high-x, quark-gluon plasma and, by using longitudinally or transversally polarised targets, spin physics. We finally present feasibility studies for Drell-Yan, open heavy-flavour and quarkonium production, with an emphasis on high-x and spin physics. LHC constraints on color octet scalars. Overall we find mass limits around 1 TeV in the most sensitive regions of parameter space, and lower elsewhere.
This is at odds with generic limits for color octet scalars often quoted in the literature where much larger production cross sections are assumed. Hadroproduction of heavy quarkonia at the LHC. Berezhnoy, A. Berezhnoy cern. Likhoded ihep. Luchinsky ihep. The production of heavy quarkonia at the LHC is considered. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC.
The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.
Unification and new particles at the LHC. Precision gauge coupling uni cation is one of the primary quantitative successes of low energy or split supersymmetry. Preserving this success puts severe restrictions on possible matter and gauge sectors that might appear at collider-accessible energies.
In this study we enumerate new gauge sectors which are compatible with uni cation, consisting of horizontal gauge groups acting on vector-like matter charged under the Standard Model. Interestingly, almost all of these theories are in the supersymmetric conformal window at high energies and con ne quickly after the superpartners are decoupled.
Top B physics at the LHC. In top-pair events where at least one of the tops decays semileptonically, the identification of the lepton charge allows us to tag not only the top quark charge but also that of the subsequent b quark.
In cases where the b also decays semileptonically, the charge of the two leptons can be used to probe CP violation in heavy flavor mixing and decays. This strategy to measure CP violation is independent of those adopted so far in experiments, and can already constrain non standard model sources of CP violation with current and near future LHC data.
To demonstrate the potential of this method we construct two CP asymmetries based on same-sign and opposite-sign leptons and estimate their sensitivities. Parton distributions in the LHC era.
Analyses of LHC and other! The standard description of hadronic processes relies on factorization theorems, which allow a separation of process-dependent short-distance physics from the universal long-distance structure of the proton. Traditionally the PDFs are obtained from fits to experimental data. However, understanding the long-distance properties of hadrons is a nonperturbative problem, and lattice QCD can play a role in providing useful results from first principles.
In this talk we compare the different approaches used to determine PDFs, and try to assess the impact of existing, and future, lattice calculations. Symmetry restored in dibosons at the LHC? A number of LHC resonance search channels display an excess in the invariant mass region of 1. Among them is a 3. Thus, we discuss a possible connection to dark matter.
We make a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of the NUHM2, in which the soft supersymmetry SUSY -breaking contributions to the masses of the two Higgs multiplets, m 2 Hu,d, vary independently from the universal soft SUSY-breaking contributions m 2 0 to the masses of squarks and sleptons. LHC collider phenomenology of minimal universal extra dimensions. We derive analytical results for all relevant strong pair-production processes of two level 1 Kaluza-Klein partners and use them to validate and correct the existing MUED implementation in the fortran version of the PYTHIA event generator.
Commissioning of the cryogenics of the LHC long straight sections. Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration.
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While a specific time is definitely yet to be revealed, Sony has verified that the PS5 launching date is Getaway , setting up a war royale between the PS5 and fresh Xbox Line X with regard to Christmas You might find that you're required to set up new printer drivers are usually want your printer perform correctly.
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Aerosol volatility and enthalpy of sublimation of carboxylic acids. The enthalpy of sublimation has been determined for nine carboxylic acids, two cyclic pinonic and pinic acid and seven straight-chain dicarboxylic acids C 4 to C The enthalpy of sublimation was determined from volatility measurements of nano aerosol particles using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer VTDMA set-up.
Compared to the previous use of a VTDMA, this novel method gives enthalpy of sublimation determined over an extended temperature range DeltaT approximately 40 K. The determined enthalpy of sublimation for the straight-chain dicarboxylic acids ranged from 96 to kJ mol -1 , and the calculated vapor pressures at K are in the range of 10 -6 -3 Pa. These values indicate that dicarboxylic acids can take part in gas-to-particle partitioning at ambient conditions and may contribute to atmospheric nucleation, even though homogeneous nucleation is unlikely.
To obtain consistent results, some experimental complications in producing nanosized crystalline aerosol particles were addressed. It was demonstrated that pinonic acid "used as received" needed a further purification step before being suspended as a nanoparticle aerosol. Furthermore, it was noted from distinct differences in thermal properties that aerosols generated from pimelic acid solutions gave two types of particles. These two types were attributed to crystalline and amorphous configurations, and based on measured thermal properties, the enthalpy of vaporization was kJ mol -1 and that of sublimation was kJ mol This paper describes a new method that is complementary to other similar methods and provides an extension of existing experimental data on physical properties of atmospherically relevant compounds.
An overly optimistic determination of the vaporization enthalpy of hydrazine, which created an unrealistically strong connection between the gas phase thermochemistry and the calorimetric results defining the thermochemistry of liquid hydrazine was identified as the probable culprit.
Temperature dependences of saturated vapor pressure and the enthalpy of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of dicarboxylic acids. The saturated vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of linear C2-C6 dicarboxylic acids are determined by the transpiration method in the temperature range of The dependences of enthalpies of vaporization on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule and on the retention indices have been determined.
The predictive capabilities of the existing calculation schemes for estimation of enthalpy of vaporization of the studied compounds have been analyzed. The present work describes a rigorous method, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, for calculating the bulk enthalpy of the flow produced in two of these facilities. The motivation for this work is to determine a dimensionally-correct formula for calculating the bulk enthalpy that is at least as accurate as the conventional formulas that are currently used.
Unlike previous methods, the new method accounts for the amount of argon that is present in the flow. Comparisons are made with bulk enthalpies computed from an energy balance method. An analysis of primary facility operating parameters and their associated uncertainties is presented in order to further validate the enthalpy calculations reported herein. Enthalpies of a binary alloy during solidification.
The purpose of the paper is to present a method of calculating the enthalpy of a dendritic alloy during solidification. The enthalpies of the dendritic solid and interdendritic liquid of alloys of the Pb-Sn system are evaluated, but the method could be applied to other binaries, as well. The enthalpies are consistent with a recent evaluation of the thermodynamics of Pb-Sn alloys and with the redistribution of solute in the same during dendritic solidification.
Because of the heat of mixing in Pb-Sn alloys, the interdendritic liquid of hypoeutectic alloys Pb-rich of less than 50 wt pct Sn has enthalpies that increase as temperature decreases during solidification. Enthalpy of formation of anisole: implications for the controversy on the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy in phenol.
Static-bomb combustion calorimetry led to the standard molar enthalpy of formation of liquid anisole at Split-step eigenvector-following technique for exploring enthalpy landscapes at absolute zero. The mapping of enthalpy landscapes is complicated by the coupling of particle position and volume coordinates.
To address this issue, we have developed a new split-step eigenvector-following technique for locating minima and transition points in an enthalpy landscape at absolute zero. Each iteration is split into two steps in order to independently vary system volume and relative atomic coordinates. A separate Lagrange multiplier is used for each eigendirection in order to provide maximum flexibility in determining step sizes.
This technique will be useful for mapping the enthalpy landscapes of bulk systems such as supercooled liquids and glasses. Enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers. Shots with air and carbon dioxide were carried out in the T5 shock tunnel at GALCIT to study enthalpy effects on hypervelocity boundary layers. The model tested was a 1-meter long, 5-deg half-angle cone. It was instrumented with 51 chromel-constantan coaxial thermocouples and the surface heat transfer rate was computed to deduce the state of the boundary layer.
Transitional boundary layers obtained confirm the stabilizing effect of enthalpy. As the reservoir enthalpy is increased, the transition Reynolds number evaluated at the reference conditions increases. This stabilizing effect is more rapid in gases with lower dissociation energy and it seems to level off when no further dissociation can be achieved. Normalizing the reservoir enthalpy with the edge enthalpy appears to collapse the data for all gases onto a single curve.
A similar collapse is obtained when normalizing both the transition location and the reservoir enthalpy with the maximum temperature conditions obtained with BLIMPK, a nonequilibrium boundary layer code.
The observation that reference conditions are more appropriate to normalize high enthalpy transition data was taken a step further by comparing the tunnel data with results from a reentry experiment. When the edge conditions are used, the tunnel and flight data are around an order of magnitude apart. This is commonly attributed to high disturbance levels in tunnels that cause the boundary layer to transition early. However, when the reference conditions are used instead, the tunnel and flight data come within striking distance of one another although the trends with enthalpy are reversed.
This difference could be due to the cone bending and nose blunting. Results for air indicate that the reactions are probably in nonequilibrium and that the wall is catalytic. The catalycity is seen to yield higher surface heat transfer rates than the. Research shows that students have problems understanding thermodynamic concepts and that a gap exists at the tertiary level related to more specific chemistry concepts such as enthalpy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to construct undergraduate students' conceptions of enthalpy , its change and related concepts.
Three explorative small-scale…. Many important industrial separation processes based on adsorption operate close to saturation. In this regime, the underlying adsorption processes are mostly driven by entropic forces.
At equilibrium, the entropy of adsorption is closely related to the enthalpy of adsorption. Thus, studying the behavior of the enthalpy of adsorption as a function of loading is fundamental to understanding separation processes. Unfortunately, close to saturation, the enthalpy of adsorption is hard to measure experimentally and hard to compute in simulations. To investigate the fundamental behavior of the enthalpy and entropy of adsorption at high loading, we develop a simplistic model of adsorption in a channel and show that at saturation the enthalpy of adsorption diverges to large positive values due to repulsive intermolecular interactions.
However, there are many systems that can avoid repulsive intermolecular interactions and hence do not show this drastic increase in enthalpy of adsorption close to saturation. The best method to study properties at saturation is the NVT energy local- slope methodology. Enthalpies of solvation for dopamine hydrochloride in water-ethanol solutions. The effect of the composition of the binary solvent on the solvation of dopamine is considered.
Proton affinity and enthalpy of formation of formaldehyde. The proton affinity and the enthalpy of formation of the prototypical carbonyl, formaldehyde, have been determined by the first-principles composite focal-point analysis FPA approach.
The electronic structure computations employed the all-electron coupled-cluster method with up to single, double, triple, quadruple, and even pentuple excitations. The basis set limit values have been confirmed via explicitly correlated computations.
Our FPA study supersedes previous computational work for the proton affinity and to some extent the enthalpy of formation of formaldehyde by accounting for a electron correlation beyond the "gold standard" CCSD T level; b the non-additivity of core electron correlation effects; c scalar relativity; d diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections computed at a correlated level; e anharmonicity of zero-point vibrational energies, based on global potential energy surfaces and variational vibrational computations; and f thermal corrections to enthalpies by direct summation over rovibrational energy levels.
Our final proton affinities at Our final enthalpies of formation at Suess, Leonard E. The centerline total enthalpy of arc jet flow is determined using laser induced fluorescence of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Each component of the energy, kinetic, thermal, and chemical can be determined from LIF measurements.
Additionally, enthalpy distributions are inferred from heat flux and pressure probe distribution measurements using an engineering formula. Average enthalpies are determined by integration over the radius of the jet flow, assuming constant mass flux and a mass flux distribution estimated from computational fluid dynamics calculations at similar arc jet conditions. The trends show favorable agreement, but there is an uncertainty that relates to the multiple individual measurements and assumptions inherent in LIF measurements.
The SC-2 and SC-3 type materials have near-metallic thermal conductivities near. High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal.
The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made.
Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows. Measurement of the aerothermodynamic state in a high enthalpy plasma wind-tunnel flow. All results are based on optical emission spectroscopy data.
The measured parameters are combined to determine the local mass-specific enthalpy of the free stream. The analysis of the radiative transport, relative and absolute intensities, and spectral shape is used to determine various thermochemical parameters. The model uncertainty of each analysis method is assessed. The plasma flow is shown to be close to equilibrium.
Additional measurements of the local mass-specific enthalpy are conducted using a mass injection probe as well as a heat flux and total pressure probe. The agreement between all methods of enthalpy determination is good. Calculating the enthalpy of vaporization for ionic liquid clusters. Classical atomistic simulations are used to compute the enthalpy of vaporization of a series of ionic liquids composed of 1-alkylmethylimidazolium cations paired with the bis trifluoromethylsulfonyl imide anion.
The calculations show that the enthalpy of vaporization is lowest for neutral ion pairs. Non-neutral clusters have much higher vaporization enthalpies than their neutral counterparts and thus are not expected to make up a significant fraction of volatile species. The enthalpy of vaporization increases slightly as the cation alkyl chain length increases and as temperature decreases.
The calculated vaporization enthalpies are consistent with two sets of recent experimental measurements as well as with previous atomistic simulations.
A standard way to determine the formation enthalpy H and entropy S of point defect formation in crystals consists in the application of the Arrhenius equation for the defect concentration.
In this work, we show that a formal use of this method actually gives the effective apparent values of these quantities, which appear to be significantly overestimated. The underlying physical reason lies in temperature-dependent formation enthalpy of the defects, which is controlled by temperature dependence of the elastic moduli.
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