# expected return formula beta risk free rate

The required rate of return is the minimum return an investor will accept for owning a company's stock, as compensation for a given level of risk associated with holding the stock.

The RRR is also used in corporate finance to analyze the profitability of potential investment projects. The required rate of return is also known as the hurdle rate , which like RRR, denotes the appropriate compensation needed for the level of risk present.

There are a couple of ways to calculate the required rate of return. If an investor is considering buying equity shares in a company that pays dividends, the dividend-discount model is ideal. The dividend discount model is also known as the Gordon growth model. The dividend-discount model calculates the RRR for equity of a dividend-paying stock by utilizing the current stock price, the dividend payment per share, and the forecasted dividend growth rate.

The formula is as follows:. M1 Finance blends key investment principles with cutting-edge technology to provide you with the best possible results. For answers to any questions that you might have, call us today at You can also get started today by completing our online application now. How it works Invest Borrow Spend Plus. Earn more M1 Stories Reviews Comparisons. Blog Education Articles. Sign up. What is CAPM and the capital asset pricing model?

Why is CAPM important to understand in investing? Statistics People in different generations in the U. Systematic risk vs. That's because investors have no incentive to take on additional risk if returns are the same or lower than the risk free rate.

The CAPM model also includes a component to account for the risk of the specific portfolio or security. This portion of the equation is called the "risk premium," meaning it represents the returns an investor will require to compensate for the additional risk above the risk free rate. Beta is a measure of a security or portfolio's volatility in relation to the market; a beta above one means the investment is more volatile than the market, and a beta below one means it is less volatile than the market.

You can learn to calculate an individual stock's beta here , and the beta for your entire portfolio here. The goal of the CAPM formula is to evaluate whether a stock is fairly valued when its risk and the time value of money are compared to its expected return.

The stock has a beta compared to the market of 1. The expected return of the stock based on the CAPM formula is 9. The expected return of the CAPM formula is used to discount the expected dividends and capital appreciation of the stock over the expected holding period. There are several assumptions behind the CAPM formula that have been shown not to hold in reality. Modern financial theory rests on two assumptions: 1 securities markets are very competitive and efficient that is, relevant information about the companies is quickly and universally distributed and absorbed ; 2 these markets are dominated by rational, risk-averse investors, who seek to maximize satisfaction from returns on their investments.

Despite these issues, the CAPM formula is still widely used because it is simple and allows for easy comparisons of investment alternatives. However, price movements in both directions are not equally risky. The future inflation rate is assumed to be 7.

Expected returns in nominal terms should rise to compensate investors for the anticipated loss in purchasing power. Many brokerage firms and investment services also supply betas. Plugging the assumed values of the risk-free rate, the expected return on the market, and beta into the security market line generates estimates of the cost of equity capital.

In Exhibit IV I give the cost of equity estimates of three hypothetical companies. The betas in Exhibit IV are consistent with those of companies in the three industries represented. Many electric utilities have low levels of systematic risk and low betas because of relatively modest swings in their earnings and stock returns. Airline revenues are closely tied to passenger miles flown, a yardstick very sensitive to changes in economic activity. Amplifying this systematic variability in revenues is high operating and financial leverage.

The results are earnings and returns that vary widely and produce high betas in these stocks. Major chemical companies exhibit an intermediate degree of systematic risk. I should stress that the methodology illustrated in Exhibit IV yields only rough estimates of the cost of equity. Sophisticated refinements can help estimate each input. Sensitivity analyses employing various input values can produce a reasonably good range of estimates of the cost of equity.

Nonetheless, the calculations in this exhibit demonstrate how the simple model can generate benchmark data. The result is a pricing schedule for equity capital as a function of risk. Applications of these concepts are straightforward.

The betas of these companies reflect the risk level of the industry. Of course, refinements may be necessary to adjust for differences in financial leverage and other factors. A second example concerns acquisitions. In discounted cash flow evaluations of acquisitions, the appropriate cost of equity should reflect the risks inherent in the cash flows that are discounted.

Again, ignoring refinements required by changes in capital structure and the like, the cost of equity should reflect the risk level of the target company, not the acquiror. But the true test of CAPM, naturally, is how well it works. There have been numerous empirical tests of CAPM.

A beta of 2 would be twice as risky as the market. In practice, risk is synonymous with volatility. A stock with a beta larger than the market beta of 1 will generally see a greater increase than the market when the market is up and see a greater decrease than the market when the market is down. Not surprisingly, CAPM contributed to the rise in the use of indexing —assembling a portfolio of shares to mimic a particular market or asset class—by risk-averse investors.

This is largely due to CAPM's message that it is only possible to earn higher returns than those of the market as a whole by taking on higher risk beta. The capital asset pricing model is by no means a perfect theory.

But the spirit of CAPM is correct. It provides a useful measure that helps investors determine what return they deserve on an investment, in exchange for putting their money at risk on it. Risk Management. Financial Analysis. Tools for Fundamental Analysis. Given the accepted concave utility function , the CAPM is consistent with intuition—investors should require a higher return for holding a more risky asset. Since beta reflects asset-specific sensitivity to non-diversifiable, i. Stock market indices are frequently used as local proxies for the market—and in that case by definition have a beta of one.

An investor in a large, diversified portfolio such as a mutual fund , therefore, expects performance in line with the market.

The risk of a portfolio comprises systematic risk , also known as undiversifiable risk, and unsystematic risk which is also known as idiosyncratic risk or diversifiable risk. Systematic risk refers to the risk common to all securities—i. Unsystematic risk is the risk associated with individual assets.

Unsystematic risk can be diversified away to smaller levels by including a greater number of assets in the portfolio specific risks "average out". The same is not possible for systematic risk within one market. Depending on the market, a portfolio of approximately 30—40 securities in developed markets such as the UK or US will render the portfolio sufficiently diversified such that risk exposure is limited to systematic risk only. In developing markets a larger number is required, due to the higher asset volatilities.