The structure was demolished in   to make way for the MetLife Building. The Main Concourse is connected to the subway platforms' mezzanine via the Shuttle Passage. The 42nd Street Shuttle platforms, located just below ground level, opened in as an express stop on the original IRT subway.
During the terminal's construction, there were proposals to allow commuter trains to pass through Grand Central and continue into the subway tracks. However, these plans were deemed impractical because commuter trains would have been too large to fit within the subway tunnels.
Three buildings serving essentially the same function have stood on the current Grand Central Terminal's site. Vanderbilt commissioned John B. Snook to design his new station, dubbed Grand Central Depot, on the site of the 42nd Street depot.
Grand Central Depot had reached its capacity again by the late s,  and it carried As train traffic increased in the late s and early s, so did the problems of smoke and soot produced by steam locomotives in the Park Avenue Tunnel, the only approach to the station.
Wilgus proposed to electrify and place the tracks to Grand Central in tunnels, as well as constructing a new railway terminal with two levels of tracks and making other infrastructure improvements.
The entire building was to be torn down in phases and replaced by the current Grand Central Terminal. It was to be the biggest terminal in the world, both in the size of the building and in the number of tracks. Construction on Grand Central Terminal started on June 19, Over 10, workers were assigned to the project.
After the last train left Grand Central Station at midnight on June 5, , workers promptly began demolishing the old station. The terminal spurred development in the surrounding area, particularly in Terminal City , a commercial and office district created above where the tracks were covered.
In , the Grand Central Art Galleries opened in the terminal. In , over 65 million people traveled through Grand Central, an all-time high. There were multiple proposals to alter the terminal, including several replacing the station building with a skyscraper; none of the plans were carried out.
The new corporation proposed to demolish Grand Central Terminal and replace it with a skyscraper, as the Pennsylvania Railroad had done with the original Penn Station in Grand Central and the surrounding neighborhood became dilapidated during the s, and the interior of Grand Central was dominated by huge advertisements, which included the Kodak Colorama photos and the Westclox "Big Ben" clock.
The terminal was used for intercity transit until Amtrak, the national rail system formed in , ran its last train from Grand Central on April 6, , upon the completion of the Empire Connection on Manhattan's West Side. In , the MTA commissioned a study of the Grand Central Terminal, which concluded that parts of the terminal could be turned into a retail area.
On February 1, , numerous displays, performances, and events were held to celebrate the terminal's centennial. The new stations and tunnels are to begin service in December At the time of its completion, Grand Central Terminal offered several innovations in transit-hub design. One was the use of ramps, rather than staircases, to conduct passengers and luggage through the facility.
Two ramps connected the lower-level suburban concourse to the main concourse; several more led from the main concourse to entrances on 42nd Street. These ramps allowed all travelers to easily move between Grand Central's two underground levels. The Park Avenue Viaduct, which wrapped around the terminal, allowed Park Avenue traffic to bypass the building without being diverted onto nearby streets,  and reconnected the only north—south avenue in midtown Manhattan that had an interruption in it.
Designers of the new terminal tried to make it as comfortable as possible. Amenities included an oak-floored waiting room for women, attended to by maids; a shoeshine room, also for women; a room with telephones; a beauty salon with gender-separated portions; a dressing room, with maids available for a fee; and a men's barbershop, containing a public area with barbers from many cultures, as well as a rentable private space.
The "outbound" concourse would have a 15,person capacity while the "inbound" concourse would have an 8,person capacity. A waiting room adjoining each concourse could fit another 5, people.
Every train at Grand Central Terminal departs one minute later than its posted departure time. The extra minute is intended to encourage passengers rushing to catch trains at the last minute to slow down.
According to The Atlantic , Grand Central Terminal has the lowest rate of slips, trips, and falls on its marble floors, compared to all other stations in the U. All of the terminal's light fixtures are bare light bulbs. At the time of the terminal's construction, electricity was still a relatively new invention, and the inclusion of electric light bulbs showcased this innovation. When Grand Central Terminal opened, it hired two types of porters, marked with different-colored caps, to assist passengers.
There were only twelve green-capped porters, as well as two messengers who brought messages to an exchange on the west side of the terminal. Grand Central Terminal was built to handle trains per hour, though actual traffic never came close to that. As constructed, the upper level was for intercity trains, and the lower level for commuter trains.
This allowed commuter and intercity passengers to board and exit trains without interfering with each other. Balloon loops surrounding the station eliminated the need for complicated switching moves to bring the trains to the coach yards for service. Trains would drop passengers off at one side of the station, perhaps be stored or serviced in the rail yard , then use the turning loops and pick up passengers on the other side.
Burying the terminal's tracks and platforms also allowed the railroads to sell above-ground air rights for real-estate development. William Wilgus saw these air rights as merely a means to fund the terminal's construction. Planning for the development began long before the terminal was completed.
By , news of the plans for Grand Central was already boosting the values of nearby properties. With its hotels, office buildings, apartments and underground streets it not only is a wonderful railroad terminal, but also a great civic centre. The Realty and Terminal Company typically profited from the air rights in one of two ways: constructing the structures and renting them out, or selling the air rights to private developers who would construct their own buildings.
These structures were designed in the neoclassical style, complementing the terminal's architecture. The consistency of the architectural styles, as well as the vast funding provided by investment bankers, contributed to Terminal City's success. The Graybar Building , completed in , was one of the last projects of Terminal City. The building incorporates many of Grand Central's train platforms, as well as the Graybar Passage, a hallway with vendors and train gates stretching from the terminal to Lexington Avenue.
The area shares similar boundaries as the Grand Central Business Improvement District , a neighborhood with businesses collectively funding improvements and maintenance in the area. The district is well-funded; in it had the largest budget of any business improvement district in the United States.
The terminal is served by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority Police Department , whose Fifth District is headquartered  in a station on the Dining Concourse. In , seven officers were suspended for behaving inappropriately, including harassing a homeless man and patrolling unclothed.
Lawsuits forced the MTA to drop the charges and to thenceforth allow use of restrooms according to gender identity. Fire and medical emergency services are provided by the Grand Central Fire Brigade, a volunteer entity formed in One of six such units in the Metro-North system, the brigade is made up of Metro-North employees, most of which are blue-collar workers: plumbers, electricians, machinists, and custodians. Every member is a volunteer, except for the fire chief.
All receive at least hours of training; EMS-certified members get an additional hours every three years. The brigade handles an average of two emergencies a day, mostly medical in nature.
It also conducts fire drills and stations fire guards for special events in the terminal. The brigade's fleet, stored in a bay next to Track 14, includes three electric carts equipped with sirens and red lights: a white-painted ambulance no wider than a hospital bed that carries a stretcher, oxygen tanks, defibrillators, and other medical equipment; a red pumper that carries gallons of water and feet of fire hose; and a red rescue truck with air packs, forcible entry tools, and turnout gear.
Among the permanent works of public art in Grand Central are the celestial ceiling in the Main Concourse,   the Glory of Commerce work, the statue of Cornelius Vanderbilt in front of the building's south facade,   and the two cast-iron eagle statues adorning the terminal's facades.
Grand Central Terminal has been the subject, inspiration, or setting for literature, television and radio episodes, and films. Many film and television productions have included scenes shot in the terminal. The MTA hosts about 25 large-scale and hundreds of smaller or amateur productions every year. Whether filmmakers need an establishing shot of arriving in New York or transportation scenes, the restored landmark building is visually appealing and authentic.
After the terminal declined in the s, it was more frequently used as a dark, dangerous place, even a metaphor for chaos and disorientation,  featuring chase scenes, shootouts, homeless people, and the mentally ill. In the film The Freshman , for example, Matthew Broderick 's character stumbles over an unconscious man and watches fearfully as petty crimes take place around him. Free play through hundreds of levels, or race against the clock in Time Trial mode.
Gameplay ranges from simple and relaxed, to challenging and frenetic, and everywhere in between. How you play is up to you. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Click on one of those numbered links squares. Please specify any value between 1 and so that it is generated in the card header, in this list item and the chronology will automatically appear and function.
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