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Front Matter Pages Diagrams in the Mind? Pages Knowing About Diagrams. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. The Armenians had already established trade networks that allowed Abbas to strengthen the Iran's economy. The portrait by Muhammad Qasim suggests that the Muslim prohibition against the consumption of wine, as well as that against male intimacy, 'were more honoured in the breach than in the observance'.

Silk production became a monopoly of the crown, and manuscripts, bookbinding, and ceramics were also important exports. He had a particular veneration for Imam Hussein.

The Italian traveller Pietro della Valle was astonished at the Shah's knowledge of Christian history and theology and establishing diplomatic links with European Christian states was a vital part of the shah's foreign policy.

From Abbas implemented a 'scorched earth' policy in the region to protect his north-western frontier against any invading Ottoman forces, a policy that involved the forced resettlement of up to , Armenians from their homelands. Those who survived enjoyed considerable religious freedom in New Julfa, where the shah built them a new cathedral. Abbas' aim was to boost the Iranian economy by encouraging the Armenian merchants who had moved to New Julfa. As well as religious liberties, he also offered them interest-free loans and allowed the town to elect its own mayor kalantar.

These were less lucky. Abbas wanted to establish a second capital in Mazandaran, Farahabad, but the climate was unhealthy and malarial. Many settlers died and others gradually abandoned the city.

Abbas' tolerance towards Christians was part of his policy of establishing diplomatic links with European powers to try to enlist their help in the fight against their common enemy, the Ottoman Empire. The idea of such an anti-Ottoman alliance was not a new one — over a century before, Uzun Hassan, then ruler of part of Iran, had asked the Venetians for military aid — but none of the Safavids had made diplomatic overtures to Europe and Abbas' attitude was in marked contrast to that of his grandfather, Tahmasp I, who had expelled the English traveller Anthony Jenkinson from his court on hearing he was a Christian.

In , Abbas sent his first diplomatic mission to Europe. Abbas offered trading rights and the chance to preach Christianity in Iran in return for help against the Ottomans.

But the stumbling block of Hormuz remained, a port that had fallen into Spanish hands when the King of Spain inherited the throne of Portugal in The Spanish demanded Abbas break off relations with the English East India Company before they would consider relinquishing the town.

Abbas was unable to comply. The Shirley brothers arrived in and helped reorganise the Iranian army, which proved to be pivotal for the Safavid victory in the Ottoman-Safavid War and the first Safavid victory in battle over their neighbouring Ottoman archrivals. One of the Shirley brothers, Robert Shirley, led Abbas' second diplomatic mission to Europe between It was the beginning of the East India Company's long-running interest in Iran.

By Muhammad Qasim Shortly after, Mohammed Baqir broke protocol during a hunt by killing a boar before the shah had a chance to put his spear in the animal. This seemed to confirm Abbas' suspicions and he sunk into melancholy; he no longer trusted any of his three sons. A Circassian named Behbud Beg executed the Shah's orders and the prince was murdered in a hammam in the city of Resht. The shah almost immediately regretted his action and was plunged into grief. His heir, Mohammed Khodabanda, thought he was on his deathbed and began to celebrate his accession to the throne with his Qizilbash supporters.

But the shah recovered and punished his son by blinding him, which would disqualify him from ever taking the throne. But the plot was betrayed, the prince's followers were executed and the prince himself imprisoned in the fortress of Alamut where he would later be murdered by Abbas' successor, Shah Safi.

Abbas groomed him carefully for the throne but, for some reason, in , he had him partially blinded and imprisoned in Alamut. Nevertheless, he did succeed Shah Abbas at the age of 17 in , taking the name Shah Safi. Abbas's health was poor from onwards. He died at his palace in Farahabad on the Caspian coast in and was buried in Kashan. He was a brilliant strategist and tactician whose chief characteristic was prudence.

He preferred to obtain his ends by diplomacy rather than war, and showed immense patience in pursuing his objectives. His reign was the outstanding creative period of the Safavid era.

But the civil wars and troubles of his childhood when many of his relatives were murdered left him with a dark twist of suspicion and brutality at the centre of his personality. Sources report him spending much of his time among them, personally visiting bazaars and other public places in Isfahan.

At the age of 19 Abbas shaved off his beard, keeping only his moustache, thus setting a fashion in Iran. September , Mazandaran — d. She had issue, two sons including:Suleiman II.

Isma'il I, Shah of Iran 4. Tahmasp I, Shah of Iran 9. Tajlu Khanum 2. Muhammad Khodabanda, Shah of Iran Musa Sultan Musullu Sultanum Begum 1.

Abbas I, Shah of Iran Sultan Mahmud Marashi 6. Before he could act, the Shah had died, thus leaving him as governor, but without fulfilling his prerequisite task.

The confusion sprouts from the fact that two distinctly different, but similar, occurrences both happened in the month of October, but in different years. First, Abbas seized power in the capital of Qazvin, whilst his father was leading the troops.

This occurred on 16 October Then, after his father had returned, on 1 October , Shah Mohammad abdicated and gave control of the empire over to Abbas in a ceremony. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 1 January California: University of California Press. Mazda Publishers. His reigned marked the peak of Safavid dynasty's achievement in art, diplomacy, and commerce.

Harvard CMES. References[edit]Asat'iani, Nodar; Bendianachvili, Alexandre Paris, France: L'Harmattan. Axworthy, Michael Empire of the Mind: A History of Iran. London, UK: C.

Hurst and Co. Babaie, Sussan; et al. Library of Middle East History. London, UK: I. Blow, David Bomati, Yves; Nahavandi, Houchang Paris, France: Perrin.

Bosworth, C. Military Slavery in Islamic Iran'. In Yarshater, Ehsan ed. Archived from the original on 24 May Retrieved 24 May Cole, Juan R. May International Journal of Middle East Studies. Dale, Stephen Frederic Eraly, Abraham [].

Haneda, Masahi Under the Safavids'. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 13 September Hoiberg, Dale H. I: A-Ak - Bayes 15th ed. IBP Armenia Country Study Guide. International Business Publications. Jackson, Peter; Lockhart, Lawrence, eds. The Cambridge History of Iran. Kacharava, Eka Friends of Academic Research in Georgia.

Archived PDF from the original on 24 May Khanbaghi, Aptin Kouymjian, Dickran In Hovannisian, Richard G. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. Kremer, William 25 January BBC News Magazine. Lapidus, Ira Marvin Lockhart, Lawrence Arberry, Arthur John ed. The Legacy of Persia. The Legacy Series. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Madelung, W. Manz, Beatrice; Haneda, Masashi Matthee, Rudi International Library of Iranian Studies. Matthee, Rudolph P. Mikaberidze, Alexander Historical Dictionary of Georgia 2 ed. Mitchell, Colin P. Milton Park, UK: Routledge. Persian Studies. Retrieved 12 May Monshi, Eskandar Beg Persian Heritage in Arabic and English. Translated by Savory, Roger M. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Newman, Andrew J. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. Parizi, Mohammad-Ebrahim Bastani X: Fisheries - Gindaros.

Quinn, Sholeh Oneworld Publications. Roemer, H. In Jackson, Peter; Lockhart, Lawrence eds. Saslow, James M. New York, NY: Viking. Savory, Roger M. Iran under the Safavids. Shakespeare, William The Works of William Shakespeare. Cambridge, UK: Macmillan and Company. Starkey, Paul In Allen, Roger ed. Essays in Arabic Literary Biography. Wiesbaden, Germany: Otto Harrassowitz.

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