Bubble entrainment by a sphere falling through a horizontal soap foam. Cox , Ioan Tudur Davies Physics The distortion of a horizontal soap film due to the impact of a falling sphere C. Davidson Chemistry References Publications referenced by this paper. Adaptive fluid-infused porous films with tunable transparency and wettability. Journal of Fluid Mechanics vol. Birgitt Boschitsch Stogin. Birgitt Boschitsch , Peter A. Dewey, Keith W. Moored, and Alexander J. Link to publication in Scopus.
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As a demonstration of one such application, we showed that a free standing liquid membrane can block contaminants during simulated surgical procedures without inhibiting visibility or maneuverability and can actively collect and remove contaminants. Unlike solid membranes, objects embedded in the liquid membranes can move freely in the plane of the membrane due to the mobility of the liquid molecules. The particles retained in the film can also move within the plane of the liquid membrane, allowing them to be transported away if needed FIG.
Note also that these particular liquid membranes are transparent, allowing them to be used in applications requiring through-film visibility. In our demonstration, we were able to manipulate surgical tools within the membrane and pass bovine flesh from the simulated surgical opening through the membrane. Meanwhile, particles introduced to the films were trapped and diverted to the edge of the film due to the mobility of the liquid interface.
In addition, we have shown that these liquid membranes can successfully prevent contaminants from passing through FIG. Another aspect of the free standing liquid membranes of the present disclosure, is to serve as a gas diffusion barrier while allowing macroscopic objects to pass though. Here, a gas diffusion barrier refers to a material that decreases the diffusivity of a gas compared to its diffusivity in air.
Because liquid membranes can significantly decrease the rate of diffusion of chemicals relevant in waterless toilets, they are an inexpensive solution towards addressing the open defecation problem. To demonstrate the use of liquid membranes for the sequestration of gas while allowing passage of solids, we used fog produced by a humidifier to simulate and visualize gas, and used a suspended liquid film to block the fog while allowing solid objects to pass through.
Humidity measurements taken above an intact liquid membrane show that a liquid membrane can be as effective as an impermeable glass substrate control in blocking fog passage FIG. Note that the liquid membrane compositions can be further tailored to reduce the diffusion of specific gases. For example, free-standing liquid membrane composed of water, glycerol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate can effectively reduce the diffusion of gaseous hydrocarbons under room conditions.
The following examples are intended to further illustrate certain preferred embodiments of the invention and are not limiting in nature. Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain, using no more than routine experimentation, numerous equivalents to the specific substances and procedures described herein.
See Stalder et al. The results are also shown in Table 1. In an effort to understand variation between individual liquid membranes, we measured the mass m of freshly formed liquid membranes. Estimated initial film thicknesses based on this equation are shown in Table 3 below. This estimation represents an upper bound of the initial film thickness here since some liquid volume may be collected near the film perimeter due to wetting of the liquid on the hydrophilic aluminum ring.
Roughness measurements of the beads used in our experiments and of flat surfaces used for contact angle measurements were performed using an optical profilometer Zygo NexView 3D.
Using this instrument, we conducted roughness measurements on six different regions of both flat and spherical samples of PTFE, polystyrene, and glass. Contact angle measurements of soap films on flat surfaces comprised of materials chemistry similar or identical to that of the beads used in our experiments were used to approximate the energy loss due to pinning.
To approximate the energy dissipation associated with pinning, both advancing and receding contact angle values are required. Since the surface roughnesses of our flat surface samples are smaller than those of the beads Table 4 , the measured receding angles on the flat substrate would lead to an underestimate of the energy dissipation due to liquid pinning.