The project encompasses the architecture of two recipients of the Pritzker Architecture Prize , Shigeru Ban and French Christian de Portzamparc Under the leadership of such people as botanist Jean-Marie Pelt , Metz pioneered a policy of urban ecology during the early s. Based initially on the ideas of the Chicago School , Pelt's theories pleaded for better integration of humans into their environment and developed a concept centered on the relationship between "stone and water".
The principles of urban ecology are still applied in Metz with the implementation of a local Agenda 21 action plan. Additionally, the city has developed its own combined heat and power station , using waste wood biomass from the surrounding forests as a renewable energy source. The Metz power station is the first local producer and distributor of energy in France. As a historic Garrison town, Metz has been heavily influenced by military architecture throughout its history.
Defensive walls from classical antiquity to the 20th century are still visible today, incorporated into the design of public gardens along the Moselle and Seille rivers.
It is still possible to see parts of the 16th century citadel , as well as fortifications built in the s by Louis de Cormontaigne but based on designs by Vauban. Although the steel industry has historically dominated Moselle's economy, Metz's efforts at economic diversification have created a base in the sectors of commerce , tourism , information technology and the automotive industry.
The city is the economic heart of the Lorraine region and around 73, people work daily within the urban agglomeration.
Metz is home to the Moselle Chamber of Commerce. Metz is also the regional headquarters of the Caisse d'Epargne and Banque Populaire banking groups. Metz is an important commercial centre of northern France with France's biggest retailer federation, consisting of around 2, retailers. The historic city centre displays one of the largest [ citation needed ] commercial pedestrian areas in France and a mall, the Saint-Jacques centre. In addition there are several multiplex movie theatres and malls found in the urban agglomeration.
In recent years, Metz municipality have promoted an ambitious policy of tourism development, including urban revitalization and refurbishment of buildings and public squares. Metz has several venues for the performing arts. The Opera House of Metz , the oldest working opera house in France, features plays, dance, and lyric poetry. The Saint-Jacques Square , surrounded by busy bars and pubs whose open-air tables fill the centre of the square. Since , the former bus garage has been converted to accommodate over thirty artists in residence, in a space where they can create and rehearse artworks and even build set decorations.
Metz was an important cultural centre during the Carolingian Renaissance. Then called Messin Chant, it remains the oldest form of music still in use in Western Europe.
The bishops of Metz, notably Saint-Chrodegang promoted its use for the Roman liturgy in Gallic lands under the favorable influence of the Carolingian monarchs. Wheelchair Accessible. Online Reservations. Restaurant Deals. Available Tonight. Altmeyer, "Relations Commerciales du Danemark et des Paysbas," The troubles of the Danish royal family were not over when they left Copenhagen.
A violent storm scattered the fleet in the North Sea, and drove several of the ships on the Norwegian coast, where many of them were lost with all their cargo.
The remaining eleven or twelve ships entered the harbour of Veeren, in Walcheren, on the 1st of May. Here the King and Queen were kindly received by Adolf of Burgundy, the Admiral of the Dutch fleet, who kept them for a week in his own house, and then escorted them to the Regent's Court at Malines.
Margaret welcomed her niece with all her old affection, and took her and the royal children into her own house. But she met the King's prayer for help coldly, saying that it was beyond her power to give him either men or money.
The moment, it is true, was singularly unpropitious. Not only were all the Emperor's resources needed to carry on his deadly struggle with France, but nearer home the Regent was engaged in a fierce conflict with her old enemy, Charles of Guelders, for the possession of Friesland. As Adolf of Burgundy wrote to Wolsey: "We need help so much ourselves that [Pg 37] we are hardly in condition to help others.
The scheme met with Margaret's approval, and, since Isabella had only brought one Dutch maid and the children's nurses from Copenhagen, the Regent lent her several ladies, in order that she might appear in due state at the English Court. On the 5th of June the King and Queen left Malines with a suite of eighty persons and fifty horses, and, after waiting some time at Calais to hear the latest news from Denmark, crossed the Channel, and reached Greenwich on the 19th.
Wolsey had already told the Imperial Ambassador, De Praet, that the King of Denmark would receive little encouragement from his master, and had expressed a hope that he would not give them the trouble of coming to England. He met the royal travellers, however, at the riverside, and conducted them to the palace, where they dined in the great hall with the King on the following day, Henry leading Christian by the hand, and Queen Katherine following with Isabella and her sister-in-law, Mary, Duchess of Suffolk, the widow of Louis XII.
Katherine welcomed her great-niece with motherly affection, but both Henry and Wolsey told Christian plainly that he had made a fatal mistake in deserting his loyal subjects, and advised him to return at once and encourage them by his presence. All the English monarch would do was to send Envoys to Denmark to urge the usurper Frederic and his supporters to return to their allegiance. The futility of these measures was evident to De Praet, who wrote to Charles at Toledo, saying that unless he took up the exiled monarch's cause for his sister's sake he would never recover his kingdom.
Copenhagen was now besieged by land and sea, and if the garrison were not relieved by Michaelmas they would be forced to surrender, and Christian's last hope would be gone. The King himself, De Praet owned, seemed little changed, and he advised the Emperor to insist on Sigebritt's removal before giving him any help. At Isabella's request, both Margaret and King Henry had spoken strongly to Christian on this subject, but he still persisted in his infatuation, and it was not till after he had left the Netherlands, and his wife and aunt were dead, that this miserable woman was arrested in Ghent and burnt as a witch.
As for the Queen, no words could express De Praet's admiration for her angelic goodness. There was, clearly, nothing more to be gained by remaining in England, and on the 5th of July the King and Queen returned to the Low Countries. Isabella joined her children at Malines, and Christian went to Antwerp to equip ships for the relief of Copenhagen.
But he soon quarrelled with Margaret, and left suddenly for Germany. In September he appeared at Berlin, having ridden from Brussels attended by only two servants, and succeeded in raising a force of 25, men, with the help of his brother-in-law, the Marquis of Brandenburg, and Duke Henry of Brunswick.
But when the troops assembled on the banks of the Elbe, King Christian was unable to fulfil his promises or provide the money demanded by the leaders, and he was glad to escape with his life from the angry hordes of soldiers clamouring for pay.
By the end of the year Copenhagen capitulated, and in the following August the usurper Frederic was elected King by the General Assembly, and solemnly crowned in the Frauenkirche. But through all these troubles Isabella [Pg 40] clung to him with unchanging faithfulness.
She followed him first to Berlin, then to Saxony, where he sought his uncle's help. In March she went to Nuremberg on a visit to her brother, King Ferdinand, and pleaded her husband and children's cause before the Diet in so eloquent a manner that the assembled Princes were moved to tears. If it were not for her sake, not a single man would saddle a horse on his behalf.
Hannart, in fact, confessed that he had done his utmost to keep Christian away from Nuremberg, feeling sure that his presence would do more harm than good. Even Isabella's entreaties were of no avail. She begged her brother in vain for the loan of 20, florins to satisfy the Duke of Brunswick, whose angry threats filled her with alarm. But Christian, as Hannart remarked in a letter to the Regent Margaret, had few friends.
Even his servants did not attempt to deny the charges that were brought against him, and the Queen alone, like the loyal wife that she was, sought to explain and excuse his conduct.
To add to Isabella's troubles, her brother Ferdinand was seriously annoyed at the leanings to the Lutheran faith which she now displayed. Christian's Protestant [Pg 41] tendencies had been greatly strengthened by his residence in Saxony during the winter of He heard Luther preach at Wittenberg, and spent much time in his company, dining frequently with him and Spalatin, the Court chaplain, and making friends with the painter Lucas Cranach.
When the Marquis Joachim of Brandenburg remonstrated with his brother-in-law for his intimacy with the heretic Luther, Christian replied that he would rather lose all three of his kingdoms than forsake this truly Apostolic man. At Nuremberg she attended the sermons of the Lutheran doctor Osiander, and received Communion in both kinds from his hands on Maundy Thursday, to the great indignation of King Ferdinand, who told her he could not own a heretic as his sister. Isabella replied gently that if he cast her off God would take care of her.
Luther on his part was moved by the apparent sincerity of his royal convert. Isabella accompanied her husband on this occasion, at Hannart's request. But when, by way of compromise, some members of the Congress proposed that Frederic should retain the throne, and recognize Prince John as his successor, Christian rejected this offer angrily, and negotiations were soon broken off. Both Charles and Margaret now gave up all hope of effecting Christian's restoration, and concluded a treaty in the following August with King Frederic, by which his title was recognized, and the Baltic was once more opened to the merchants of the Low Countries.
The exiled monarch, now compelled to realize the hopelessness of his cause, returned sorrowfully with his wife to the Low Countries, and Isabella had [Pg 43] at least the joy of embracing her children once more. During this long absence the faithful servants who had followed their King and Queen into exile had kept her well supplied with news of their health and progress. He is already a great favourite with the Lady Margaret. His sisters, the Princesses, are very well, and are both very pretty children.
The youngest, Madame Christine, has just been weaned. Madame Marguerite says that she will soon be receiving proposals of marriage for the elder one. These are good omens, for which God be praised. It is a real pleasure to be with these children, they are so good and charming. If only Your Grace could see them, you would soon forget all your troubles. But not all Margaret's affection for Isabella and her children could reconcile her to the King's presence.
Christian was, it must be confessed, a troublesome guest. His restless brain was always busy with new plots and intrigues. At first he announced his intention of taking Isabella to visit the Emperor in Spain, but, after spending some weeks in Zeeland fitting out ships, he suddenly changed his mind, and took Isabella, whose health had suffered from all the hardships and anxiety that she had undergone, to drink the waters at Aix-la-Chapelle. On his return he wished to settle at Ghent, but the Regent and her Council, fearing that his presence would excite sedition in this city, suggested that the Castle of Gemappes should be offered him instead.
Charles replied that if the King lived at Gemappes he would certainly spoil his hunting, and thought that Lille or Bruges would be [Pg 44] a better place. In the end Lierre, a pleasant city halfway between Malines and Antwerp, was chosen for the exiled Princes' home. Towards the end of Christian and his family took up their abode in the old castle which still goes by the name of Het Hof van Denemarken , or Cour de Danemarck.
A guard of fifty halberdiers and a considerable household was assigned to them by the Emperor's order. A monthly allowance of crowns was granted to the King, while the Queen received a yearly sum of 2, crowns pour employer en ses menus plaisirs. But Christian's reckless and disorderly conduct soon landed him in fresh difficulties.
Isabella cut up her husband's old robes to make clothes for her little girls, and was reduced to such penury that she was compelled to pledge, not only her jewels, but the children's toys. One of the subjects in which he chose to be examined. Was Pliny's Natural History. As a student Morris maintained his interest in natural history. And helped order the insect collection in the Ashmolean Museum. He entered the Church and became curate at Hanging Heaton.
Near Dewsbury. Then followed his ordaining as Deacon by the Archbishop of York in August Between and he was vicar at Huttons Ambo. In November He became vicar of Nafferton near Driffield in East Yorkshire.
A parish he served for nine years. In he moved to the Rectory of Nunburnholme. Near Market Weighton in East Yorkshire. Here he had ample leisure to pursue his interests in natural history. During his stay at Nafferton he acquired a reputation for writing popular essays on natural history and in particular on birds.
His first book was an arrangement of British birds and was published in. Contents: Preface et notice sur La Bruyere. Des Biens de Fortune, De la Ville. De la Cour. Des Grands, Du Souverain ou de la Republique. De quelques usages, De la Chaire. Des Esprits forts. Fair condition binding not so tight. Shipment fees' values via registered mail domestic.
Brought him" bien. Interessante edizione antica e d'epoca, celebre opera relativa alla storia del noto complesso abbaziale molisano. Bel volume in folio, arricchito anche da tavole illustrative ripiegate fuori testo; edizione curata dal noto storiografo modenese L.
E apparsa nella sua"Rerum Italicorum Scriptores" del Tomo Botanical Atlas - 54 Large ColorPlates - Moritz Willkomm: Naturgeschichte des Pflanzenreichs Beautiful botanical Atlas with altogether 54 large double-page chromolithographic plates size 44 x 32 cm Published: undated.
But between and Size of the book: 32 x 22 cm Condition: Hardcover binding. Slight wear and a few minor defects. The plates are in good condition. Shipping-costs: see description. We combine shipping at no extra cost, if more than one item is bought Payment: Paypal or Banktransfer. Original and rare etching published in circa.
Illustrating the murder of Julius Caesar by the famous work of Pierre Du Reyer, translating the metamorphoses written by the classical writer Publius Ovidius Naso, known as Ovid- Size page 8. Standard Airmail letter: 2. Paypal Moneybookers. Tre libri legati in un volume. A pag. Copertina con qualche abrasione. Tracce di alamari rimossi in quarta di copertina, legatura allentata, le pagine centrali sporgono dal taglio davanti.
Pagine pulite e fresche. Enzenberg, Hocheppan, Burg-Ruine u Kapelle b. Auflage Broschur, 22 Seiten mit- z. Erstellt durch Das kostenlose Einstell-Tool. I pages, vol. II pages. Dum veneris in Regnum tuum. RM Anea mea. Satutimum has numeral 34 in top right corner runt. Et ominis terra tremuit: Latro de Cruce clamabat di cens meme. Shows vellum grain, ink quality and color-came out of a frame. Large letter"A" side is paler, bleached compared to back-red and black inks-possibly 16th century.
Of course! Buy with confidence! Returns accepted! Wear and enjoy! No risk to you! Meaning that in most cases every page of the real book corresponds to an image. The resolution of these images varies from book to book and the lowest resolution is x pixels. These Bibles are written in German and they have many wonderful illustrations as for example the famous Marthin Luther Bible. All 4 books have more than pages. Below you will see some sample pages sizes reduced from some of these books and also the list with all 4 books which you will find on this data DVD.
Please make sure you check our other items! Thank you for your interest! Greece The shipping and handling cost depends from the number of items and their weight. A very clean item with numerous plates. First edition from Limited edition to copies.
This being number Printed on Zander's handmade French paper. Vellum spine and corners. Please do see the pics for the complete contents list. We do accept PayPal. If you don't have a Paypal account please do send us an e-mail for other payment Payment must be received within 5 days of close of auction.
We combine shipping for savings to our customers on multiple purchases. We pack carefully and ship immediately upon receipt of payment. As soon as we ship your item we leave a feedback. We appreciate to have your feedback too. Thanks for browsing this listing. Original antique engraving related to Ichthyology Order Apodes Published probably during the decade Engraved by J.
Fish species: G. Good condition merely splotchy paper. Note: The Mediterranean moray sometimes also called Roman eel. Muraena helena is a fish of the moray eel family. Its bite can be dangerous to humans. The marbled swamp eel. Synbranchus marmoratus. Has been recorded at up to centimetres 59 in in length, while the Bombay swamp eel. Monopterus indicus.
Reaches no more than 8. Introduction to Part III. The People in Power. The queen approved of it, and the king, who was then of age, with his brother, went to meet him. The parliament renewed its arrets, proscribed Mazarin, and set a price upon his head. They were obliged to consult the registers for the price paid for the head of an enemy to the state, and they found that in the reign of Charles IX.
It was, therefore, seriously determined to act according to form, by setting the same price on the assassination of a cardinal and prime minister. No one, however, was tempted to gain the fifty thousand crowns offered by the proscription, which, after all, would never have Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] been paid. In any other nation, or at any other time, such an arret would have met with persons to put it in execution; but now it served only to afford new subject of raillery.
This raillery was the only effect produced by this proscription. The cardinal, on his side, made no use of either poison or assassination against his enemies; and notwithstanding the rancor and madness of so many factions, and their hatred, no very great crimes were committed on any side. The heads of parties were not inclined to cruelty, nor were the people very furious, for it was not a religious war.
Nothing else could be expected from a body of magistrates which, thrown quite out of its proper sphere, ignorant of its own rights and real power, and as little acquainted with state affairs and war, meeting in a tumultuous manner, and passing decrees in hurry and confusion, took measures which it had not thought of the day before, and which afterward astonished it.
But objects of greater importance now engrossed the attention of all France. The finances were already too much drained to allow either of the two parties to keep large armies on foot; but small ones were sufficient to decide the fate of the kingdom. There are times when an army of one hundred thousand men is barely sufficient to take two towns; and there are others in which eight thousand men may subvert or establish a throne.
Louis XIV. All the hopes of the court were centred in Marshal Turenne. The duke of Beaufort was unfit for the least command. The duke of Nemours passed for a brave and amiable, rather than a skilful general.
The army was ruined by them both together. His presence did a great deal, and this unforeseen arrival still more: he knew that men are elated with whatever is sudden and unexpected; he therefore took immediate advantage of the confidence and boldness with which his presence had inspired his troops. The royal army was divided into two corps.
Turenne could not receive advice of this. Cardinal Mazarin, struck with a panic, flew to Gien in the midst of the night to awaken the king and acquaint him with this news. His little court was struck with consternation: it Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] was proposed to save the king by flight, and convey him privately to Bourges. Turenne, however, quieted the apprehensions of the people by his steadiness, and saved the court by his dexterity.
There could not well be a smaller battle, greater concerns depending, or a more pressing danger. The coadjutor, now Cardinal de Retz, who had apparently been reconciled to a court that feared him, and whom he equally distrusted, was no longer master of the people, nor acted the principal part in these transactions. The parliament fluctuated between the court, the duke of Orleans, and the prince; but all sides joined in crying out against Mazarin: every one in private took care of his own concerns.
The people were like a stormy ocean, whose waves were driven at hazard by many contrary winds. The shrine of St. Nothing was to be seen but negotiations between the heads of parties, deputations from the parliament, meetings of the chambers, seditions among the people, and soldiers all over the country. Guards were mounted even at the gates of convents. The prince had called in the Spanish to his assistance. Charles IV. The king, who was then fifteen years old, beheld from the heights of Charonne, the battle of St.
Anthony, in which these two generals, with a handful of troops, performed such great things as considerably increased the reputation of both, which already seemed incapable of addition. The king himself, attended by Cardinal Mazarin, beheld this fight from a neighboring eminence. The duke of Orleans, uncertain which side to take, kept within his palace of Luxembourg, and Cardinal de Retz remained in his archbishopric. The parliament waited the issue of the battle to enact new decrees.
There it was that the duke de La Rochefoucauld, who was so famous for his courage and wit, received a blow over his eyes, which deprived him of his sight for some time. Nothing was to be seen but young noblemen killed or wounded, being carried to St. The royal army retired. After the bloody and indecisive battle of St. A commotion of the populace and the deaths of several citizens, of which he was thought to be the author, had made him hateful in the eyes of the people. Nevertheless, he had still a party in the parliament.
This was the title that had been conferred on the duke of Mayenne in the time of the league. At that time all parties were alike weak, and the court was as much so as the rest. They all wanted men and money. Factions were daily increasing: the battles which had been fought on both sides had produced only losses and vexations. The court found itself obliged once more to give up Mazarin, whom everyone accused of being the cause of these troubles, while he was in fact only the pretence.
Accordingly he quitted the kingdom a second time; and, as an additional disgrace, the king was obliged to issue a public declaration, by which he banished his minister, while he commended his services and lamented his exile.
Charles I. On the other hand, Louis XIV. Thus the same weakness had very different successes. The king of England, by giving up his favorite, emboldened a people who delighted in war, and had a hatred to all kings: and Louis XIV.
No sooner had the cardinal departed on his way Edition: current; Page: [ 73 ] to Bouillon, the place fixed for his new retreat, than the citizens of Paris, of their own accord, sent deputies to the king to beseech him to return to his capital, which he accordingly did; and everything appeared so peaceable, that it would have been difficult to suppose that a few days before all had been in confusion.
Cardinal de Retz, who was perhaps as imprudent as he was bold and aspiring, was arrested in the Louvre, and after being carried from prison to prison, he for a long time led a wandering life, which at length ended in retirement, where he acquired virtues which his high spirit had made him a stranger to, amidst the tumults of his fortune.
Some counsellors of the parliament who had most abused their power paid the forfeit of their faults by banishment; the rest were restricted within the proper limits of the magisterial function; and some were encouraged to do their duty by a yearly gratification of five hundred pounds, which was paid them privately by Fouquet, procureur-general, and comptroller of the finances.
Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] There were still some few factions in Bordeaux, but they were soon quelled. The calm which the kingdom now enjoyed was owing to the banishment of Cardinal Mazarin. Yet scarcely was he expelled by the general cry of the French nation, and by the royal declaration, than he was recalled by the king, and to his infinite surprise, entered Paris once more in full power, and without the least disturbance, in March, The king received him as a father, and the people as a master.
Claude de l'Estoile. Maistre Galimathias. John Ramsey. Practice For Dauncinge. Marin Mercenne. Harmonie Universelle. George Chapman, James Shirley. The Ball. The Lovelace Manuscript. Juan de Esquivel Navarro. John Playford, ed. The English Dancing Master [1st Edition]. The Dancing Master [2nd Edition]. Note: All capitalizations and spelling sic.
Adds dances to the 1st Edition , in addition to alphabetizing the dances and changing the spelling of some of the names. Isaac de Benserade. Ballet Royal De La Nuit. Michel de Marolles. Amour Malade Ballet Du Roy. The Dancing Master [3rd Edition, 1st Version]. Notes: All capitalizations and spelling sic.
Begins with superficial changes to the 2nd Edition , then subtracts and adds some dances at the end. Ballet Royal d'Alcidiane. Johann Georg Pasch. The Dancing Master [3rd Edition, 2nd Version]. Superficial changes to the 3rd Edition This copy is missing pages 44 to the end.
Michel de Pure. Le Bourgeois Gentil-Homme. The Dancing Master [4th Edition]. Completely re-arranged from the 3rd Edition , with new dances added. The idea seems to have been to organize the dances by form round vs. This copy is missing four pages p. Other pages are mis-paginated, but that is an error in the original printing. Schmid Mercurius.
Antoine de Courtin. The Dancing Master [5th Edition]. Superficial changes to the 4th Edition , with a few dances added at the end. Mis-pagination from the 4th Edition remains. La Roche-Guilhen. The Dancing Master 6th Edition. Juan Antonio Jaque. Madrid Ms. Thomas Corneille, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle. Paris [ WorldCat ]. Jean-Baptiste Lully. The Dancing Master 7th Edition. The Dancing Master 8th Edition. The Dancing Master 9th Edition.
Nouveau Sisteme De Musique. The Dancing Master 10th Edition. Thomas Bray. In the first part of this book, pages are double-paginated two facing pages labeled 1, two facing pages labeled 2, etc. The page numbers below correspond to the printed page numbers, not the pages of the digital document. In the second part, which begins on pdf page 45, music is provided for various "French dances," which have no descriptions and haven't been indexed.
Piezas Para Clave. Barcelona Ms. London Ms. Raoul Fueillet. Recueil De Dances. Raoul-Auger Fueillet. William Wycherley. The Gentleman Dancing-Master. Kellom Tomlinson. Wellington Ms. NLNZ [Powers]. Huguo Bonneford. Michel l'Affilard. Gottfried Taubert. Kurtzer Entwurff Des Edlen.
Johann Pasch. Beschreibung Wahrer Tanz-Kunst. The Union, a New Dance. Samuel Rudolph Behr. Maitre De Dance. The Royal Portuguez, Mr. John Young ed.
The Dancing-Master 14th Edition. The Royall Gailliarde, Mr. The Princess, Mr. The Royall: Mr. London: Printed for I. The Rigadoon Royal, Mr. Claude Balon, Jacques Dezais. The Royal Ann, Mr. John Weaver. Raoul Feuillet. The Northumberland: Mr. The Pastorall, Mr. Isaac's New Dance For The Dancing Master, Vol. Meletaon [Johann Leonhard Rost]. Von der Nutzbarkeit des Tantzens. The Godolphin, Mr. Raoul-Auger Fueillet, John Essex tr.
For the Furthur Improvement of Dancing. Raoul Fueillet, John Weaver tr. The Friendship, Mr. The Princess Anna. Gregorio Lambranzi. Cheese fondue. Hot Dog. Vegetarian Friendly. Vegan Options. Gluten Free Options. Families with children. Large groups. And the king, in resentment of this injury, cut off all commerce with the Low-Countries, banished the Flemings, and recalled his own subjects from these provinces.
Philip retaliated by like edicts; but Henry knew, that so mutinous a people as the Flemings would not long bear, in compliance with the humours of their prince, to be deprived of the beneficial branch of commerce which they carried on with England. He had it in his power to inflict more effectual punishment on his domestic enemies; and when his projects were sufficiently matured, he failed not to make them feel the effects of his resentment.
All these were arraigned, convicted, and condemned for high treason, in adhering and promising aid to Perkin. Mountfort, Ratcliff, and Daubeney were immediately executed: Fitzwater was sent over to Calais, and detained in custody; but being detected in practising on his keeper for an escape, he soon after underwent the same fate.
The rest were pardoned, together with William Worseley, dean of St. Greater and more solemn preparations were deemed requisite for the trial of Stanley, lord chamberlain, whose authority in the Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] nation, whose domestic connexions with the king, as well as his former services, seemed to secure him against any accusation or punishment.
Henry then told him, that the best proof he could give of penitence, and the only service he could now render him, was the full confession of his guilt, and the discovery of all his accomplices, however distinguished by rank or character. Encouraged by this exhortation, Clifford accused Stanley then present, as his chief abettor; and offered to lay before the council the full proof of his guilt.
Stanley himself could not discover more surprize than was affected by Henry on the occasion. He received the intelligence as absolutely false and incredible; that a man, to whom he was in a great measure beholden for his crown, and even for his life; a man, to whom, by every honour and favour, he had endeavoured to express his gratitude; whose brother, the earl of Derby, was his own father-in-law; to whom he had even committed the trust of his person, by creating him lord chamberlain: That this man, enjoying his full confidence and affection, not actuated by any motive of discontent or apprehension, should engage in a conspiracy against him.
Clifford was therefore exhorted to weigh well the consequences of his accusation; but as he persisted in the same positive asseverations, Stanley was committed to custody, and was soon after examined before the council. But princes are often apt to regard great services as a ground of jealousy, especially if accompanied with a craving and restless disposition, in the person who has performed them.
The general discontent also, and mutinous humour of the people, seemed to require some great example of severity. And as Stanley was one of the most opulent subjects in the kingdom, After six weeks delay, which was interposed in order to shew that the king was restrained by doubts and scruples; the prisoner was brought to his trial, condemned, and presently after beheaded.
Historians are not agreed with regard to the crime which was proved against him. The general report is, that he should have said in confidence to Clifford, that, if he were sure the young man, who appeared in Flanders, was really son to king Edward, he never would bear arms against him.
The sentiment might disgust Henry, as implying a preference of the house of York to that of Lancaster, but could scarcely be the ground, even in those arbitrary times, of a sentence of high treason against Stanley. It is more probable, therefore, as is asserted by some historians, that he had expressly engaged to assist Perkin, and had actually sent him some supply of money.
The fate of Stanley made great impression on the kingdom, and struck all the partizans of Perkin with the deepest dismay. The jealous and severe temper of the king, together with his great reputation for sagacity and penetration, kept men in awe, and quelled not only the movements of sedition, but the very murmurs of faction.
But Henry continued more intent on encreasing the terrors of his people, than on gaining their affections. Trusting to the great success which attended him in all his enterprizes, he gave every day, more and more, a loose to his rapacious temper, and employed the arts of perverted law and justice, in order to exact fines and compositions from his people.
Sir William Capel, alderman of Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] London, was condemned on some penal statutes to pay the sum of pounds, and was obliged to compound for sixteen hundred and fifteen. This was the first noted case of the kind; but it became a precedent, which prepared the way for many others. While he depressed the nobility, he exalted and honoured and caressed the lawyers; and by that means both bestowed authority on the laws, and was enabled, whenever he pleased, to pervert them to his own advantage.
His government was oppressive; but it was so much the less burthensome, as, by his extending royal authority, and curbing the nobles, he became in reality the sole oppressor in his kingdom.
Information being brought him, that the king had made a progress to the north, he cast anchor on the coast of Kent, and sent some of his retainers ashore, who invited the country to join him. The gentlemen of Kent assembled some troops to oppose him; but they purposed to do more essential service than by repelling the invasion: They carried the semblance of friendship to Perkin, and invited him to come, himself, ashore, in order to take the command over them.
But the wary youth, observing that they had more order and regularity in their movements than could be supposed in new levied forces, who had taken arms against established authority, refused to entrust himself into their hands; and the Kentish troops, despairing of success in their stratagem, fell upon such of his retainers, as were already landed; and besides some whom they slew, they took a hundred and fifty prisoners.
These were tried and condemned; and all of them executed, by orders from the king, who was resolved to use no lenity towards men of such desperate fortunes. A parliament. This year a parliament was summoned in England, and another in Ireland; and some remarkable laws were passed in both countries. The English parliament enacted, that no person, who should by arms or otherwise assist the king for the time being, should ever afterwards, either by course of law or act of parliament, be attainted for such an instance of obedience.
This statute might be exposed to some censure, as favourable to usurpers; were there any precise rule, which always, even during the most factious times, could determine the true successor, and render every one inexcusable, who did not submit to him.
But as the titles of princes are then the great subject of dispute, and each party pleads topics in its own favour, it seems but equitable to secure those who act in support of public tranquillity, an object at all times of undoubted benefit and importance. And the attempt to bind the legislature itself, by prescribing rules to future parliaments, was contradictory to the plainest principles of political government.
This parliament also passed an act, impowering the king to levy, by course of law, all the sums which any person had agreed to pay by way of benevolence: A statute, by which that arbitrary method of taxation was indirectly authorized and justified. Sir Edward Poynings had been sent over to that country, with an intention of quelling the partizans of the house of York, and of reducing the natives to subjection.
He was not supported by forces sufficient for that enterprize: The Irish, by flying into their woods, and morasses, and mountains, for some time eluded his efforts: But Poynings summoned a parliament at Dublin, where he was more successful. He passed that memorable statute, which still bears his name, and which establishes the authority of the English government in Ireland.
By this statute, all the former laws of England were made to be of force in Ireland; and no bill can be introduced into the Irish parliament, unless it previously receive the sanction of the council of England. This Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] latter clause seems calculated for ensuring the dominion of the English; but was really granted at the desire of the Irish commons, who intended, by that means, to secure themselves from the tyranny of their lords, particularly of such lieutenants or deputies as were of Irish birth.
The Italians, who had entirely lost the use of arms, and who, in the midst of continual wars, had become every day more unwarlike, were astonished to meet an enemy, that made the field of battle, not a pompous tournament, but a scene of blood, and sought at the hazard of their own lives the death of their enemy.
Their effeminate troops were dispersed every where on the approach of the French army: Their best fortified cities opened their gates: Kingdoms and states were in an instant overturned: And through the whole length of Italy, which the French penetrated without resistance, they seemed rather to be taking quarters in their own country, than making conquests over an enemy. The maxims, which the Italians, during that age, followed in negociations, were as ill calculated to support their states, as the habits to which they were addicted in war: A treacherous, deceitful, and inconsistent system of politics prevailed; and even those small remains of fidelity and honour, which were preserved in the councils of the other European princes, were ridiculed in Italy, as proofs of ignorance and rusticity.
Ludovico, duke of Milan, who invited the French to invade Naples, had never desired or expected their success; and was the first that felt terror from the prosperous issue of those projects, which he himself had concerted. This league was composed of Ludovico himself, the pope, Maximilian king of the Romans, Ferdinand of Spain, and the republic of Venice. Henry too entered into the confederacy; but was not put to any expence or trouble in consequence of his engagement.
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