When pronounced, the vowel sound is dropped. Again, indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. Well when a word ending in a consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound, the consonant often becomes pronounced. This is a process called liaison.
When a vowel goes directly after un, the normally unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced. Liaison also occurs with des. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album.
In English, we would say "I am looking at photographs. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures, you would say "Je regarde les photographies. To say What is it? You will be using Qu'est-ce que? Remember that the indefinate article un or une must agree with the noun it modifies. Il y a pronounced eel ee ah is used to say there is or there's and there are.
The phrase is used for both singular and plural nouns. The -s at the end of the most plural of most nouns tells you that the phrase is there are instead of there is. In spoken French, when both the singular and plural forms almost always sound the same, the article and perhaps other adjectives modifying the noun is used to distinguish between singular and plural versions.
You will soon learn that a is the present third person singular form of avoir, the verb meaing to have, and that y is a pronoun meaning there. The phrase il y a, then, literally translates to he has there. You will see this phrase used in all French tenses.
It is important to remember that verb stays as a form of be and not have. Like in English, il y a They are used to point out objects in front of you or in exclamatory sentences.
Elle est de Marseille. G: Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person plural. The pronoun it does not exist in French.
Il replaces all masculine nouns, even those that are not human. The same is true with elle and feminine nouns. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu, as discussed earlier, French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings, but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". Also, while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English, the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do.
However, when pronounced, they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle", so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. Also, if a group of people consists of both males and females, the male form is used, even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. For more, see the Wikipedia entry. G: Introduction to Verbs A verb is a word that describes an action or mental or physical state.
Tenses and Moods French verbs can be formed in four moods, each of which express a unique feeling. Each mood has a varying number of tenses, which indicate the time when an action takes place. In the next section, we will look at the conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood, more commonly called the present indicative. There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns.
Infinitives In this book, the infinitive form of the verb will be used to identify it. In French, the infinitive is one word. For example, parler translates to to speak, finir translates to to finish, and aller translates to to go. Conjugation French verbs conjugate, which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms.
Most verbs are regular, which means that they conjugate in the same way. The most common verbs, however, are irregular. It is an irregular verb, and is not conjugated like any other verb. I am a lawyer. Il est beau. He is handsome. They will become very useful in forming tenses. To respond poitevely, you say Oui, je suis d'accord.
In English, one would say Okay. G: Cities and Nationalities To say what city you are from, you use the preposition de. When stating your nationality or job, it is not necessary to include the article. This is an exception to the normal rule. There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality - for males and females respectively. In the next lesson, you will learn how to say the nationality of more than one person. Check for understanding Please use the the nationalities list to find out what your nationality is in French.
Then say what city you are from and what nationality you are. Then say what nationality some of your friends are, and what city they are from. For example, Marie est italienne. Elle est de Rome. Most adjectives, such as those above, are affected by this rule. Exceptions and Irregularities Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender.
When an adjective, such as gros, ends in -s, it does not change in the masculine plural form. Sometimes the final consonant is doubled in the feminine form. Elle est petite. Ils sont petits. Elles sont petites. Il est moyen. Elle est moyenne. Ils sont moyens. Elles sont moyennes. Il est grand. Elle est grande. Ils sont grands. Elles sont grandes. Il est gros. Elle est grosse. Ils sont gros. Elles sont grosses. Elle est blonde. Ils sont blonds.
Elles sont blondes. Il est brun. Elle est brune. Ils sont bruns. Elles sont brunes. Elle est intelligente. Elles sont intelligentes. Il est amusant. Elle est amusante. Ils sont amusants. Elles sont amusantes. This process is called liaison. In this book, will will show that the sound is connected usung z. Examples J'ai deux stylos. I have two pens. You have three brothers. He has an idea. Expressing Age Avoir is used to express age. G: Direct Object Pronouns le, la, and les le, la, and les are called direct object pronouns, because they are pronouns that are, you guessed it, used as direct objects.
A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns je, tu Similary, direct objects, such as "la boule", can be replaced by pronouns.
Le, la, and les can replace either people or inanimate objects. To conjugate, drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. Example: J'attends. Also, as a rule of thumb: h is considered a vowel; as in J'habite If a phrase is negative, ne changes to n'. In all plural forms, the s at the end of each subject pronoun, normally unpronounced, becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel.
It is a type of pronominal verb a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it called a reflexive verb, which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject.
Literally translated, the verb means I amuse myself. When negating a sentence, remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. What are you doing? You will learn their conjuagtion in a later lesson.
G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. In English, "He throws him the ball" is also said, and means the same thing. When used with the direct object pronouns le, la, and les, lui and leur come after those pronouns.
Note that while le, la, and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments.
As always, jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. Partir is used in other phrases. You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -re verb. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary. Don't forget prepositions. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do.
Nous avons aussi un bureau avec 3 ordinateurs : un par personne! La cuisine est toute petite et nous y mangeons le soir. Il y a une petite table et 4 chaises.
Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs. The ne is placed before the verb, while the pas is placed after. He is [a] lawyer.
Il n'est pas avocat. He is not [a] lawyer. Nous faisons nos devoirs. We are doing our homework. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs. We are not doing our homework. Je joue du piano. I play the piano. Je ne joue pas du piano. I do not play the piano. Vous vendez votre voiture. You sell your car. Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture. You do not sell your car.
Examples Il est belge.. He is Belgian. Il n'est pas belge. He is not Belgian. Nous lisons un livre. We read a book. Nous ne lisons pas de We do not read a book. Je mange une cerise.
I eat a cherry. Je ne mange pas de cerise. I do not eat a cherry. Cold and Windy Weather Il fait chaud. It's warm. Il fait froid. It's cold. The skiy is clear.
Il fait du vent. It's windy. The skiy is clearing up. Le vent souffle. The wind blows. Le soleil brille. The sun is shining. It's snowing. The rain falls. Il y a un orage! There's a storm! Il pleut. It's raining. It rained. It's going to rain. Le temps est pluvieux. G: Aller The verb aller is translated to to go. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -er verb. Usage There is no present progressive tense in French, so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go and I am going.
Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone. Instead of a preposition and place, you can use the pronoun y, meaning there. Y comes before the verb. Remember that aller must be used with a place there or a name when indicating that you are going somewhere, even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English. Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Liaison Usually, whenever a vowel sound comes after However, since allons and allez begins with vowels, nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay.
In order to have a pleasing and clean sound, two liaisons should not go connsecultively. To conjugate, drop the -ir edit lesson to find the "stem" or "root". In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject his sister, her brother.
But in French, possessive adjectives act like all other adjectives: they must agree with the noun they modify. Liaison and Adjective Changes Liaison occurs when mon, ton, and son are followed by a vowel. Liaison also occurs with all plural forms, since they all end in s. Mon, ton, and son are used before a feminine singular noun.
Elision to m', t', or s' does not occur. To conjugate, drop the edit lesson -re to find the "stem" or "root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and comment tense, as demonstrated below for the present tense. Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs, -re verbs are not very common. You will however see the following verbs fairly often.
Consonant Masc. Vowel Fem. The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced, and each lesson now gives much more information. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. You will eventually learn everything that is covered in edit lesson it, but if you would like a preview, read it, and if not, continue on to the school comment section.
List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. These are: 1. Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif The Pluperfect of the Indicative 3.
Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif The Pluperfect Subjunctive 4. Each tense and lists of irregular verb conjuagtions will be given later in this course. Whereas American grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year, they descend in France.
You will learn to conjugate it in the next section. While in English, you would say my hand or your hand, the definate article is always used in French. It is not necessary to add a preposition to the verb. With most verbs, that auxililary verb is avoir. Auxiliary Verb - Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. We have played. Free French Lessons. Support Open Culture. We're hoping to rely on loyal readers, rather than erratic ads.